You’ve really covered many of the bases. The few options left on the table aren’t going to be as expansive, I’m afraid.
Basically, it’s down to franchises, I think.
There is the Terminator franchise. 4 films and a short-lived (1 and a half seasons) show. It’s messy, and don’t get me going on continuity issues, but it’s got killer cyborg robot assassins from the future time traveling, so… you know… that’s pretty sci-fi. The show is (apparently) set between the 2nd and 3rd films, as if the 3rd (then 4th) didn’t happen.
Then there is Star Wars, which is about to get a whole lot bigger. You’ve got 3 great classic films and 3 crappy prequels, with a CGI-cartoon set between the 2nd and 3rd prequel. But it’s about to expand. But little of it is TV, it’s mainly movies, so not as much material.
You could look into comic book based shows and films. There have been a vast variety of such, on either DC or Marvel’s side. I’m a DC fan myself. The DC animated stuff of 1992-2002 is well regarded. Batman, Supeman, Justice League. They also did some live-action stuff, with varying degrees of success. “Smallville” for example. 10 years, I liked it, but it deviated a lot from true Superman lore and could be iffy at times.
Quantum Leap isn’t hard sci-fi, because the conflicts tend to be real world based, but it’s centered around a guy traveling into other people’s bodies through time helped out by a hologram from his own time (an alt. 1999) helping him through. It can be cheesy and stuff, late 80s/early 90s production values, but it’s fun. 5 (4 and a half) seasons. Scott Bakula (Archer from Enterprise) and Dean Stockwell (Cavill from BSG).
Space: Above and Beyond is a 1-season long sci-fi series centered around space marine fighter pilots in 2063 fighting an alien war. It’s got early low-value CGI effects, but it had heart and good characters and stories, and was interesting and fun, if short-lived. The ending doesn’t wrap it up totally, but it feels very satisfying and honest and so doesn’t leave you going “AHH!”
Dark Angel is another such option. 2 seasons, James Cameron produced. Introduced us to Jessica Alba. Post-apocalyptic genetic super-soldiers that escaped as kids and are hunted. Main focus is Alba’s character, though they tack on more. Cliff-hanger ending that does leave it hanging.
“Eureka” is good, though it’s what I call sci-fi ‘lite’ in that it’s… well, it’s more fun and quirky than anything else. Lasted 5 seasons?
Didn’t like Stargate myself, though it’s shortest-lived final variation “Universe” was far more approachable. Had a BSG meets Voyager vibe.
All I can think of… I’m sure there are more. Stuff I’ve never seen but heard people enjoy, like Babylon 5 and Farscape and such.